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× # A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes Summary

A landmark exploration of cosmology by one of the greatest minds of our time.

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1. Theories, such as the theory of gravity or the theory of relativity, are models that explain observations and allow scientists to predict future events, while remaining open to reform based on new evidence, making science an ever-evolving process.
1. Newton's theory of gravity allows us to predict movement of planets.
2. Gaelio disproved the theory that everything revolves around Earth by showing that there are moons orbiting Jupiter.
2. In the 1600s, Isaac Newton revolutionized the understanding of motion by disproving the notion of objects being naturally at rest and introducing the concept that all objects in the universe are in constant motion. He developed three laws to explain motion:
1. Newton's first law, the law of inertia, states that objects in motion will stay in motion in a straight line unless acted upon by a force.
2. Newton's second law, the law of force, states that the acceleration of an object is dependent upon the net force acting upon the object and the mass of the object.
3. Newton's third law, the law of action and reaction, states that for every action (force) in nature there is an equal and opposite reaction. When applied to gravity, it means objects attract each other with a force proportional to their masses.
3. According to Newton, movement of an object is always relative to the movement of something else. For example, when you're sitting on a moving train, you're not moving at all relative to the train, but relative to an observer standing outside, you're going at 100mph.
4. The speed of light always measures approximately 186,000 miles per second in a vacuum, regardless if the observer is stationary or in motion. This means that if a train were moving towards a beam of light at 100mph, the light would still travel at the speed of 186,000 miles per second, not at a slightly faster speed due to the train's motion. The constancy of the speed of light challenges the idea of relative speed and led to Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity.
5. The special theory of relativity states that laws of physics are the same for everyone, no matter how they are moving. This means that time becomes relative, because two observers experiencing the same event at different speeds would perceive it at different times since the speed of light remains the same for both observers.
6. When scientists tried to study particles (tiny portions of matter) they noticed that particles behave strangely when being measured -- their momentum becomes more uncertain when we try to measure its position, and their position becomes more uncertain when we try to measure its momentum. This is called the uncertainty principle.
7. To account for the uncertainty principle, scientists study a particle's quantum state (an amalgamation of likely positions and speeds) using its wave-like behavior (interference) to make predictions about its probable locations and velocities.
8. We perceive the world in three dimensions: height, width, and depth. However, there is a fourth dimension that we cannot directly observe -- time. Time combines with the three spatial dimensions to create a concept known as space-time. Since time is relative, scientists use this four-dimensional model to describe events in the universe, considering an event as something that occurs at a specific position in both space and time.
9. The presence of a massive object causes space and time to curve around it, much like a blanket being curved by a heavy object placed on it. Other objects then follow these curves, creating the effect of gravity, similar to how a smaller object would roll along the curved surface of the blanket caused by a larger object.
10. When a star with a high mass reaches the end of its life, it collapses under its own gravity and forms a singularity, an immensely dense spherical point known as a black hole, where space-time is curved so intensely that even light cannot escape its gravitational pull. This boundary beyond which there is no escape is called the event horizon.
11. Scientists detect black holes by observing their gravitational effects on nearby objects and by looking for X-rays and other waves emitted as matter is drawn into them.
1. There's evidence suggesting that there's a supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy.
12. The second law of thermodynamics states that when energy changes forms, or matter moves freely, entropy (disorder) increases. That's why black holes release heat to maintain the increase in entropy. Virtual pairs (undetectable particles whose effects are measurable) of particles and antiparticles near the event horizon play a role in this process, where one particle falls into the black hole while the other escapes as radiation. This radiation causes the black hole to lose mass over time, eventually leading to its complete evaporation and potential explosive end.
13. If the universe reaches maximum entropy and starts contracting, reversing the cosmological arrow of time -- which is how as the universe expands, entropy also increases -- we wouldn't be here to witness it because we rely on increasing entropy to convert food into energy. As long as we exist, we will perceive time as moving forward, although the possibility of time moving backward cannot be completely ruled out.
14. In addition to gravity, there are three other fundamental forces in the universe: electromagnetic force (force between positively and negatively charged particles), weak nuclear force (force in radioactive decay), and strong nuclear force (force in keeping protons and neutrons inside an atom's nucleus). These forces act on particles at different scales and have different strengths. At extremely high energy levels, these forces may unify into a single force (grand unification energy), potentially involved in the creation of the universe.
15. The most widely accepted theory of the universe's creation is the hot big bang model, where the universe started as an infinitely hot and dense state about 13.8 billion years ago and continuously expanded, cooled down, and gave rise to the formation of elements, galaxies, stars, and planets.
16. There are two major theories physicists use to understand the universe, general relativity, which revolves around gravity, and quantum physics, which involves particles. However, physicists aren't yet able to unify the theories because their equations produce impossible results when integrated.
17. We are still working to develop a theory of everything, a singular hypothetical and all-encompassing framework of physics that fully explains and links together all aspects of the universe.